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 Diploma in Risk Management

Learn more about risk and risk management practices and procedures.




Manuales de la Escuela de las Am?ricas


Human Resource Exploitation Manual (1983), Part 1
Human Resource Exploitation Manual (1983), Part 2


Concentric Circles of Protection

An underlying principal for providing good security involves a concept called “Concentric Circles of Protection”, sometimes also called "Security in Depth". This concept involves the use of multiple “rings” or “layers” of security. The first layer is located at the boundary of the site, and additional layers are provided as you move inward through the building toward the high-value assets.


Rather than placing full reliance on a single layer of defense, these layers require an intruder to penetrate a series of layers to reach his goal. The more layers that exist between the outside world and a high-value asset, the better the security. The Concentric Circles of Protection concept is similar to the “multiple lines of defense” strategy employed by many military planners.


This concept is illustrated in the diagram below. Please note that at the boundaries of each layer, those people who belong within the next layer can be separated from those who don’t belong. Also, at each boundary, there is an opportunity to deter, detect, and delay an intruder. This allows intruders attempting to penetrate the layer to be detected and intercepted with an appropriate security response.

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The logic behind having multiple layers of security is simple: having multiple layers eliminates total reliance on any single layer and provides redundancy. For example, in the diagram above, an intruder who “tailgated” through an exterior door would need to breech two additional layers of security before he could reach the high-value asset. While the chances of breeching any single layer may be good, the chance of breeching three or more successive layers becomes exponentially more difficult.


The multiple layers concept also provides redundancy in case there is a breakdown in procedures. For example, an employee may fail to lock a valuable piece of equipment in a cabinet as per established procedures, but instead leaves the equipment lying out openly on a desk. If the employee’s office is locked, and access to the department is controlled, the equipment is still protected.


Conversely, if a janitor were to inadvertently leave an individual office door unlocked while cleaning, the valuable equipment would still be afforded some protection by the locked door that controls access into the department, and the secured cabinet in the office where the equipment is stored. Again, while the chance of a breakdown in any single procedure may be good, the chance of a breakdown in three or more successive procedures is considerably less likely.


An absolute minimum of three layers should exist between the outside world and any type of high-value asset; with five or more layers being desirable.


Basic Principals of Security Layers


  • Having multiple layers decreases the probability that the intruder will be able to gain access.
  • You can decrease the intruder’s chance of success by adding layers, or by increasing the effectiveness of each layer, or by doing both.
  • Relying on a single layer to provide security is almost never effective because it requires a level of perfection that is unattainable.
  • Simple procedures, such as the locking of file cabinets and offices, can provide additional security “layers” at little or no cost.
  • Employee security awareness can create an invisible, yet very effective, security “layer”.


Have additional questions about concentric circles of protection? Please contact us.

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Advanced Patrol & Officer Survival


As one of the nation's leading experts on officer homicide, Criminologist James Davis provides students of this compelling distance learning course with important advice and tips for managing the dangers of police patrol and response.
Anti-Terrorism Officer Program The distance learning version of the S2 Anti-Terrorism Officer (ATO) Program is designed to prepare frontline security and police officers for deployment in environments where terrorism is a critical threat. This program provides an exploration of contemporary terrorist methods and basic anti-terrorism skills and knowledge that all officers should possess.
Assessing Terrorism Related Risk


This interactive online workshop is designed to aid security and public safety planners in developing an effective methodology for evaluating terrorism-related risk. This program introduces the various types of terrorism-related risk and uses numerous exercises to walk students through the process of conducting a qualitative risk assessment.
Attack on Jedawal: Critical Lessons for Anti-Terrorism Professionals


On the night of 12 May 2003, three housing compounds in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were struck simultaneously by Al-Qaeda in a wave of bombings and armed assaults that echoed throughout the Kingdom. In this two-hour program, Consequence Management Expert and Al-Jedawal bombing survivor Wally Braden provides a first hand look at Al-Qaeda operations in Saudi Arabia and describes the successes and failures of security and crisis management that influenced the outcome of these events.
Bomb Security for Executive Protection


The S2 Bomb Security for Executive Protection distance learning course provides students with essential skills for protecting individual principals against assassination by the use of explosives. In this 12-hour advanced-level course, anti-terrorism expert Craig Gundry explores IED technology, explosive assassination methods used by professional adversaries, and measures for preventing, detecting, and mitigating explosive attacks.
Bomb Threat Management


Bomb threats persist as the most common bomb-related problem encountered by organizations worldwide. In this distance learning course, bomb security expert Craig Gundry provides a detailed examination of the problem and practical strategies for safely managing bomb threat situations.
Chem-Bio Weapons Inspection Technology


In the S2 Chem-Bio Weapons Inspection Technology module, CB Weapons Expert Harvey J. McGeorge provides a description of the field inspection technology used by weapons inspectors during the 2003 UNMOVIC mission in Iraq. This course also provides future weapons inspectors and EOD experts with advice on best utilization of various technologies based on the experience of the UNMOVIC team.
Chemical & Biological Terrorism for Security Professionals


This distance learning course explores the threat of chemical and biological terrorism as it specifically applies to security professionals. In this seven-hour program, anti-terrorism expert Craig Gundry provides a detailed examination of the threat, possible facility attack scenarios, and measures for preventing and responding to chemical and biological attacks in a workplace environment.
Covert Surveillance for Private Investigators


In the S2 Covert Surveillance for Private Investigators course, veteran private investigator Ron Azarello and S2 Staff Instructor Craig Gundry survey the strategies, tactics, and technology available for use in conducting surveillance operations in private investigations. Although the core of this course is focused on surveillance technique and technology, considerable attention is also devoted to important parallel topics such as legal issues, teamwork, report writing, and more.
Crisis Negotiations for First Responders


In many hostage and suicide threat situations, the urgency of the crisis requires that first responding police or security personnel initiate and maintain dialogue until the arrival of professional negotiators. In the face of an emotionally-escalated crisis, one wrong statement can easily turn a dangerous situation into tragedy. In this 2-hour distance learning course, former hostage negotiator and FBI Unit Chief Vince McNally provides frontline police and security personnel with critical guidelines and advice for managing initial communications in crisis situations.
Critical Incident Management For over two decades, Criminologist James Davis has trained thousands of police officers in high risk patrol and response to critical incidents. In this 4-hour distance learning course, Mr. Davis explores the challenges of critical incidents and provides effective strategies and tactics for managing complex situations such as barricaded suspects, hostage takings, and more.
Defense Against Anti-Vehicle Explosive Attacks


Attacks against vehicles in transit by the use of explosives have emerged in recent years as some of the most popular methods of assassination by terrorists and professional adversaries. In this two hour distance learning program, bomb security expert Craig Gundry examines the spectrum of explosive related threats to vehicles in transit and provides effective strategies for countering these risks.
Defense Against Hazardous Mailings Postal bombs, contaminated mailings, and even postal devices designed to activate firearms ammunition have all been used to target VIPs, employees, and even ordinary citizens. In this distance learning course, S2 terrorism expert Craig Gundry explores the risks of hazardous mailings and appropriate countermeasures for mail-related threats.
Dynamics of Jihadist Kidnapping


In recent years, Islamist terrorist groups worldwide have discovered kidnapping as a highly effective tool for financing their operations and pressuring target governments into conceding to their demands. Furthermore, in locations such as Iraq and Saudi Arabia, graphic video executions of kidnap victims have been used as powerful psychological weapons against expatriate Westerners and the American public. In this three-hour distance learning course, former Iraq Hostage Working Group Coordinator Daniel O'Shea explores this growing problem of jihadist kidnappings, kidnapping prevention, and advice for surviving kidnapping situations.
Entry Point Screening Even the best designed access control system can fail if the procedures used by security personnel are ineffective in addressing the spectrum of deceptive and covert techniques used by terrorists to penetrate entry points. In this distance learning course, force protection expert Craig Gundry unravels the methods used by terrorists and provides effective guidelines for screening and searching people and vehicles at access control stations.
Ethics and Private Investigations


In this two-hour distance learning course, veteran private investigator Rory McMahon discusses the ethical dimensions pf private investigations and provides advice for establishing good ethical practices in business and professional activites.
Florida Statutes for Private Investigators


In the State of Florida, an individual seeking licensure as a private investigator must possess a minimum of two years of full-time investigations experience (or 4000 documented hours*) in addition to successful completion of a 100 question examination on Florida State Statutes regulating the private investigations industry. The three-hour Florida Statutes for Private Investigators course is designed to provide experienced license applicants with a detailed survey of Florida Chapter 493 and other Florida State laws influencing business practices of private investigators.


Human Intelligence for Law Enforcement The S2 Human Intelligence for Law Enforcement distance learning program is designed to provide new and experienced homeland security and law enforcement intelligence professionals with a deeper understanding of the HSINT intelligence process and successful strategies for solving domestic counterterrorism problems through effective use of human intelligence. The instructor, a former CIA Senior Field Operations Officer, draws on his previous experience in dismantling Al-Qaeda operations overseas to present students with practical strategies for planning and executing domestic HUMINT operations in addition to valuable advice about working in collaboration with the US Intelligence Community.


Human Intelligence for Special Operations Personnel The online version of the S2 Human Intelligence for Special Operations Personnel course is designed to aid US Military special forces in planning successful Title 50 HUMINT operations. In this four-hour course, a former CIA Senior Field Operations Officer, explores the HUMINT process and provides practical advice for maximizing operational success and avoiding critical mistakes.
Human Intelligence Targeting Experienced HUMINT professionals know that trolling for recruitment targets is a low percentage strategy that usually results in sources with little access to priority information. Nevertheless, "trolling" and waiting for targets-of-opportunity remains a common targeting method used in law enforcement and military intelligence communities. In this two-hour program, a former CIA Senior Field Operations Officer, presents focused targeting as an alternative and superior method for identifying and prioritizing high-value targets for recruitment.
Human Trafficking Investigation According to authorities, between 600,000 and 800,000 people are trafficked each year between nations against their will for purposes of sexual exploitation or slave labor. This estimate doesn’t include the millions of others trafficked within their own countries. In this five-hour online program, Criminologist Tony Attanasio explores the problem of contemporary human trafficking, legal aspects of human trafficking, working with victims, and unique considerations for investigation of human trafficking activities.
Identification of Iraqi Chemical & Biological Munitions


In this two-hour distance learning course, former UNMOVIC weapons inspector Harvey J. McGeorge provides a detailed survey of Iraqi chemical and biological weapons and unique features of Iraqi WMD that can aid in field identification.
Interviewing Techniques and Truth Verification


In this five-hour distance learning course, veteran PI and author Rory McMahon explores the art of interviewing and various strategies and techniques for conducting successful interviews in support of investigations. In addition to techniques for conducting interviews and recording statements, this course also provides guidelines for documenting interviews and report writing.
Introduction to Handwriting Analysis


Handwriting Analysis (“Graphology”) can expose many traits and characteristics that make up the personality of a writer. This insightful distance learning program is designed to provide security and public safety professionals with a foundation for understanding graphology. Through multimedia, case studies and hands-on analysis of actual writings, participants in this program will learn how to spot loyalty, trustworthiness, and initiative as well as signs of addiction, abuse, stress, and much more.
Legal Aspects of Private Investigation


For most new and experienced private investigators, the most critical mistakes result by failing to fully understand the law as it relates to case matters and the lawful conduct of investigations. In this 8-hour distance learning course, expert private investigators and authors Rory McMahon and Ron Azzarello explore the various dimensions of law and private investigations and shed light on many issues of criminal and civil law that have been historically problematic for private investigators.
Living Large In this compelling two-hour presentation, adventurer and author Sam Hall uses his rich life story to provide valuable advice on survival in dangerous environments, mission readiness, mental fitness, leadership, and above all else, accomplishing greatness.
Maritime Security Awareness


This distance learning course provides port employees with an essential understanding of port security threats and requirements for protecting port facilities under current Federal regulations. This program is specifically designed to address the training requirements for port employees established under the Maritime Transportation Security Act (MTSA) in 33 CFR 105.215.
Principles of Private Investigations


The S2 Principles of Private Investigations Course is designed to prepare students for employment in the field of private investigations. In this 32-hour distance learning course, students are provided with a detailed examination of investigative subjects including ethics, investigations law, background investigations, public and private records searches, interviewing techniques, report writing, surveillance, locating people, trial preparation, and more.
Principles of Undercover Work


Few assignments in criminal and private investigations are as dangerous and challenging as undercover work. The key to success in undercover work is preparation, mindset, and forseeing traps of circumstance. In this two-hour distance learning program, former undercover operative Sam Hall presents practical real-world advice on planning and executing undercover investigations based on his years of experience as an undercover FBI cut-out and work with the CIA.
Suicide Terrorism


Since the early 1980s, the use of suicide terrorist tactics has expanded far beyond the Middle-East and Sri Lanka into a global phenomenon. In this five-hour course, Israeli terrorism expert Howard Linett explores the tactical and strategic dimensions of suicide terrorism and approaches for minimizing the risk from security and public safety perspectives.
Sources of Information for Private Investigators


In this seven-hour distance learning course, veteran private investigator and author Rory McMahon surveys the wide range of information sources available to private investigators and various methods for accessing information, case management and planning, structuring background investigations, due diligence investigations, unique approaches to locating missing people, and more.
Terrorist Tactics: Israel & Palestine In this six-hour distance learning course, Israeli terrorism expert Howard Linett provides a detailed examination of the methods used by terrorists in Israel and Palestine, tactics internationally exported to other terrorist groups, and techniques pioneered by Israeli authorities and private security to combat terrorism.
Weaponization of CB Agents


In this advanced-level distance learning program, UNMOVIC Weapons Inspector and former EOD technician Dr. Harvey McGeorge provides students with a detailed understanding of chemical and biological agents and CB dissemination and delivery concepts.
WMD & The Intelligence Function


In today's threat environment, law enforcement and national-level intelligence professionals are increasingly called on to gather and assess information about chemical and biological terrorism or suspected weapons programs. In this 13-hour distance learning course, former UN Weapons Inspector Harvey J. McGeorge demystifies the complex world of chemical and biological WMD and provides effective strategies for identifying, collecting, and analyzing CBW information.
Upcoming Courses
Money Laundering & Terrorism Financing
One of the most powerful approaches to preventing terrorist attacks is to deny extremists the financial resources necessary to fund operations. In this 16-hour distance learning course, former DEA agent and Criminologist Tony Attanasio provides a detailed examination of terrorist financing and money laundering schemes and strategies for unraveling and disrupting terrorist financial networks.
Threat Analysis Through Graphology Graphology ('Handwriting Analysis') can be an extroardinary tool for identifying the personality traits of a writer. In this six-hour course, veteran graphologist and protection specialist Barry Wilson surveys handwriting analysis techniques for use in identifying potentially dangerous individuals. To aid students in using graphology principles in practical threat assessment applications, Mr. Wilson also presents a comprehensive scoring system designed to assess collective handwriting characteristics that may indicate an individual with heightened propensity for violence.
Chemicals & Agents of Biological Origin
Unfortunately, very few WMD training programs for emergency responders provide a comprehensive, detailed, and rational understanding of the chemical and biological threat. The S2 Chemicals and Agents of Biological Origin course is designed to fill this critical gap in responder training. This distance learning course provides students with a detailed analysis of potential chemical and biological agents and a thorough understanding of agent dissemination and employment scenarios. This program picks up where most other programs leave off, and surveys a wide spectrum of potential agents and employment methods that may be used by terrorists in attacking civilian targets.





HUMINT TrainingHUMINT, an abbreviation of HUMan INTelligence, is a category of intelligence gathered primarily by human collectors from human sources as opposed to other types of intelligence gathered by technical means such as satellite and imagery intelligence (SIGINT and IMINT). The process of HUMINT is known as the "intelligence cycle" and includes planning, collection, analysis, production and dissemination.

NATO defines HUMINT as "a category of intelligence derived from information collected and provided by human sources." First of all HUMINT refers to activities which consist of interrogations and conversations with persons having access to pertinent information. In the private sector, the business HUMINT is widely used in competitive intelligence to gain critical information: such as strategic decisions, financial performance, and productivity from a competitor.


Much has been written about the HUMINT activity in the sales area, in personal relationships, in management. The HUMINT collector is a person who acquires information identifying another individual who has access to that information, establishing a relationship with him and takes him to disclose such information without revealing the interest.

The 3-day HUMINT course provides an introduction and overview to the intelligence cycle including the collection methodology, source-handling, security and tradecraft, and surveillance.




  • Introduction to the Intelligence Cycle Planning 
  • Source acquisition process
  • Source Debriefing
  • Writing the Contact Report
  • Writing the Field Intelligence Report
  • Intelligence Analysis
  • Analytical framework
  • Vetting the source


Please just browse the calendar to see the dates of the scheduled courses.

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This Amazing Woman Has Been Training India’s Special Forces for 20 Years without Compensation!

From babies to boardrooms, today’s women can juggle several roles with panache. But there are some women who do more than this, going beyond the challenges of their personal lives to be of service to a larger cause.

The amazing Seema Rao is one such woman and this is her story.


Photo Source

A 7th-degree black belt holder in military martial arts, Seema Rao is India’s only female commando trainer. A prominent expert in close quarter battle, Seema has been giving commando training to various armed forces in India for 20 years, without taking any monetary compensation in return! Seema is also a combat shooting instructor, a firefighter, a scuba diver, an HMI medalist in rock climbing, and a Mrs India World pageant finalist.


This incredibly multifaceted lady is also one of the only 10 women in the world certified in Jeet Kune Do, a unique martial art form created by Bruce Lee in the 1960s.

Dr. Seema Rao Giving Commando training the Indian forces ARMY SPECIAL FORCES NAVY AIRFORCE ARMY (3)

Photo Source

Seema Rao is the daughter of freedom fighter Prof. Ramakant Sinari, who helped in the liberation of Goa from the Portuguese. The deeply patriotic Seema grew up listening to stories of India’s struggle for independence and always wanted to serve her country. She finally had the opportunity to convert this desire into reality when she met her future husband, Major Deepak Rao, at the age of 16. Major Rao had been practising martial arts since the age of 12 and it was he who introduced Seema to this empowering field.

Major Deepak Rao is Seema’s co-pioneer in the field of close quarter battle training. In 2011, he received the President of India’s rank award for his 20 years of contribution to the Indian Army. Others who have been honoured with the same award are Mahendra Singh Dhoni and Abhinav Bindra.


Photo Source

After marriage, the couple continued to learn and excel in martial arts, shooting, and weapon defence while they simultaneously pursued an education in medicine. After becoming certified doctors, Deepak equipped himself with the prestigious CLET Law Enforcement certification, while Seema did her MBA in crisis management. The formidable couple then started thinking about how they could channelise their desire to do something constructive for the country. After much thought, they decided to train the soldiers of the Indian armed forces without accepting any compensation in return.

There were two factors that inspired them to take up this Herculean challenge. One was the desire to serve the personnel who guard India and the other was their instinctive need to remain engaged in combat and martial arts. So, in 1996, they approached the Service Chiefs of Army, Navy, BSF & NSG. The chiefs were impressed with the couple’s dedication and decided to try out their training programme. There was no looking back after that.

Seema has since spent 20 years as a full-time guest trainer of the Indian armed forces.


Photo Source

The journey wasn’t easy. The couple had to face several financial hardships in the initial years of their marriage but they stuck to their decision of not charging a single rupee for their work. Also, since Seema was constantly travelling to hostile locations, through harsh weather and inhospitable terrain, she could not even attend her father’s funeral. Realising that it would be impossible to carry a pregnancy through, given her rigorous training schedule, Seema consciously decided not to have her own child and instead adopted a girl. In the course of work, Seema also suffered multiple injuries that included a vertebral fracture and a severe head injury that made her lose her memory for months (she could not recognise anyone but her husband). She was also shot at by insurgents but her determination to serve her nation never wavered. 

Along with her husband, Seema has provided training to almost every elite unit of the Indian Forces, including the NSG Black Cats, MARCOS, GARUD, Paracommandos, BSF, the Army Corps Battle Schools and its Commando Wing. She has also trained officers of the National Police Academy, the Army Officers Training Academy and the Police Quick Response Teams of almost every major city  in India.

Though Seema has repeatedly proven herself in the male-dominated field of commando training, she still meets trainees in every course who are reluctant to learn from a woman. In an interview with Naaree, Seema said:

“Not only did I have to discipline them, but I also had to gain their confidence in my ability to teach. However, eventually, I have always managed to earn the respect of commandos that I have trained.”

In 2009, after training the GARUD commandos, Seema was invited by the Air Force Chief for the official IAF Para Jump course. Here, she earned her IAF Para Wings, another rare achievement.

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Seema is also the only external combat training resource appointed by the Indian government to date and, with her husband, she has received 4 Army Chief citations, a record unparalleled by anyone.


Photo Source

Seema’s strength lies in her skill in Close Quarter Battle (CQB) – the art of proximity combat that focuses on physical prowess, skill, and protocol. It involves techniques like reflex shooting with rifles, quick shooting with pistols, and bare-handed combat. It also entails the precise use of knives, bayonets, and other appropriate combat weapons. Room combat and confined space combat such as anti- hijack operations also come under the purview of CQB.

In her interview, Seema laughingly said:

“I can shoot an apple off a person’s head from 50 yards without giving him a scratch and I can evade a speeding bullet aimed at my head with ease.”

Seema and her husband have also developed a unique and modern method of CQB exclusively for the use of Indian forces. The Advanced Commando Combat System, or Bison System as it is called, is different from the conventional CQB.


Photo Source

In this system, the reflex shooting method is unique and the unarmed methods can quickly handicap or cripple the enemy with the least effort. The team tactics in Bison System differ from conventional western CQBs and are unique too.

The Raos have also developed an indigenous method of reflex shooting, which is known as the Rao System of Reflex Fire. Says Seema:

“The conventional methods of shooting generally uses up many seconds to aim precisely and then shoot. This is beneficial in long range combat when the enemy is say 300 yards away, covered by a rock. But when the enemy is just 20 yards away and in front of you, quick shooting without using too much time for precise aim is needed. To cater to this need in modern warfare, we devised the Rao System of Reflex Fire. The Indian forces have found this very beneficial.”

The Rao couple has also established the Unarmed Commando Combat Academy (UCCA), an elite military martial arts academy, to help train the Indian forces and also to publish training books for the Forces. The Academy also offers training in Jeet Kune Do and a variety of other exotic martial arts to civilians. There is also an Unarmed Combat Blackbelt program for civilians. Says Seema:

“With UCCA, we have published seven books till date and three of these are limited editions for the exclusive use of the Indian forces. Our book Encyclopedia of Close Combat Ops is the world’s first encyclopedia on CQB training and it has found a proud place in the FBI library and the INTERPOL library.

Here is a short glimpse of Dr. Seema Rao in an MMA Bout.

Seema feels very strongly about women’s safety and has designed a program specially tailored for women to help them deal with harassment, molestation, sexual assault, and rape. Called DARE (Defence Against Rape and Eve Teasing), the program equips women, both mentally and physically, to face adverse situations posed by potential eve teasers, molesters, and other sexual assaults. She has also produced and acted in India’s first mixed martial arts movie, Hathapayi, which revolves around a woman protagonist.  This movie portrays the martial art of Jeet Kune Do for the first time in Indian cinema.

Seema has been bestowed with several awards during her amazing and inspiring journey. They include the World Peace Award at World Peace Congress in Malaysia and the US President’s Volunteer Service Award. But the greatest award, according to her, is the deep satisfaction she gets from training the Indian armed forces.

To date, Seema has trained more than 15,000 soldiers in modern close quarter battle and has no intention of hanging up her boots anytime soon. She has proved that ordinary citizens can do extraordinary work for their country and that a woman can do anything she puts her mind to. As this bold and courageous woman, who calls herself 47-years-young, says:

“It’s not easy. It never is. But who likes it easy anyway. Bring it on!!”

Here is another short video that gives a glimpse of Seema Rao at work.

Also Read: Firefighter, Mother, Breadwinner: 8 Pics That Show a Woman’s Beauty Lies in Her Strength